August 1, 1930, was born the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre-Félix Bourdieu was born in Denguin, August 1, 1930 and died in Paris, January 23, 2002. Was a French sociologist, has extensive knowledge and influence in the social and human sciences of the TWENTIETH century.

1 de agosto de 1930, nacía el sociólogo francés Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Bourdieu at the end of his life he became, by his public commitment, one of the main actors of the intellectual life in French. His thought has exerted a considerable influence on human consciousness and social, especially in the sociology of French after the war.Disclosure of Sociology, there have been many critics who accuse him of a vision of a particularly deterministic social is defended. His work is dominated by a sociological analysis of the mechanisms of reproduction of social hierarchies. Bourdieu emphasizes the importance of cultural diversity and symbolic in this reproduction is critical of the primacy given to economic factors in marxist ideas. He wants to emphasize, that the capacity of the officers in the position of dominance to impose their cultural productions and symbolic plays an essential role in the reproduction of the social relations of domination. What Pierre Bourdieu calls symbolic violence , which he defines as the ability to ignore the arbitrariness of symbolic production, and therefore to be accepted as legitimate, is of great importance in his sociological analysis.



The social world, in modern societies, Bourdieu appears as divided into what he calls fields.
It seems, in effect, that the differentiation of social activities led to the creation of sub-social spaces, such as the artistic or political field, that specializes in the performance of a particular social activity. These fields have a relative autonomy in society as a whole. They are hierarchical and dynamic competition comes from the struggles sustained by the social partners to occupy the dominant positions. Therefore, as the marxist analyses, Bourdieu emphasizes the importance of the struggle and the conflict in the functioning of the society. But for him, these conflicts are conducted mainly in social fields. They are rooted in their respective hierarchies, and is based on the opposition between the dominant players and dominated. For Bourdieu, the conflict has not reduced the conflicts between the social classes it focuses on the marxist analysis.

Pierre Bourdieu has also developed a Theory of action , around the concept of habits, which has exerted great influence in the social sciences. This theory tries to show that social agents develop strategies, on the basis of a small number of provisions acquired by the socialization, the good and the unconscious, are adapted to the needs of the social world. The work of Bourdieu is so ordered around a series of concepts guiding a few: the habitus as a principle of action of the agents, as the space race of social field and symbolic violence as a fundamental mechanism of the first imposition of relations of domination.

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Biography

Childhood

Pierre Bourdieu was born in 1930 in Denguin, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a small village in the Bearn. His father, béarnaise small peasantry, it is first of all a worker in the field. His mother was from a social background similar to, although slightly higher, since this is a lineage of owners in Lasseube. Is the only child of the couple.

Studies

Pierre Bourdieu was an excellent student of the institute of Louis-le-Grand, was taken into account by one of his teachers, a graduate of the Superior Normal School of Paris, who advised him to enroll in the preparatory classes literary in the same institute in 1948. He was admitted to the Normal School Superior of the street Ulm, 1951, he was called by his companions by his middle name, Felix, slowly recovering to their former classmates readiness as Jacques Derrida and Louis Marin.If a scene is philosophical French is dominated by the figure of Jean-Paul Sartre and existentialism, He reacts to many of their Generation normalista, the latter being preferably oriented towards the study of dominés common the field of philosophy: the polo of the history of philosophy close to the history of science, represented by Martial Gueroult and Jules Vuillemin, and epistemology taught by Gaston Bachelard and Georges Canguilhem. In addition to their studies, also continues in the seminary School practice des Hautes studies in the philosophy of right of Hegel. Professor of Philosophy in 1954, he enrolled with Canguilhem for a thesis philosophical about the temporal structure of emotional life, which he left in 1957 to devote himself to the sociological studies of the earth.

Early in his career

Bourdieu had to fulfill their military obligations. After refusing to receive a training as a reserve officer Cadet, was transferred first to Versailles in the service of the forces psychological. Due to his writing skills, he served in the administration of the General Assembly of Residence, under the command of Robert Lacoste. From 1958 to 1960, and this makes you want to continue their studies in Algeria, he became an assistant at the Faculty of Letters.

Scientific and university

En 1960 he returned to Paris, to become assistant to Raymond Aron at the University of Paris. Aron also makes the secretary of the Centre of Sociology European research institution that was founded in 1959, from the rest of the structures of the post-war period, and with funding from the Ford Foundation.The young assistant of Raymond Aron, he got a job as a professor at the University of Lille, which he held until 1964, no leave to intervene in Paris as part of courses and seminars.In 1962, he married Marie-Claire Brizard, with whom he has three children: Jerome, Emmanuel, and Lauren.In the mid-1960s, he moved with his family in Antony, a southern suburb of Paris. Bourdieu was interested in the cycling and team sports such as tennis or rugby.

School of Hautes

In 1964, He joined the Practical School of Higher Studies, then he studied in 1975 at the School of Hautes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS), the latter born in the empowerment of a sector of the Efe. The same year, he began his previous collaboration with Jean-Claude Passeron, that led to the publication of the book The heirs, a great success which helps to make him a great sociologist.

Head of research center

After the events of May 1968, he broke with his teacher Raymond Aron, the thinker, a liberal, who disapprove of the social movements. In 1968, he founded the Center for Sociology of Education and Culture, which empowers the Centre of Sociology European. In 1985, He became Director of the Sociology Centre of europe. Requires the CNRS in 1997 a merger with the Centre for Sociology of Education and Culture. The acceptance of the work of Pierre Bourdieu gradually occurs in the centre of the sociology of French.

College of France

Thanks to the support of André Miquel, he became a professor at the College de France in 1981. It was the first sociologist to receive the gold medal of the CNRS in 1993.

Editor

Parallel to his academic career, Pierre Bourdieu spearheaded a major publishing company, which allowed it to extend fully their ideas. In 1964, he became editor of Editions of midnight, and until 1992 he published most of his books, as well as those of the scholars influenced by him. Bourdieu also publishes classics of the social sciences (Durkheim, Mauss, etc), and philosophy (Ernst Cassirer, Erwin Panofsky, etc). The collection also extends to the French readers to the ideals of the leading north american sociologists (translations of Erving Goffman). In 1975 he creates, with the support of Fernand Braudel, the journal Proceedings of the Research in the Social Sciences, which he led until his death. This publication is an exhibition of his work and that of their students. Unlike traditional academic journals by the use of numerous illustrations, his great size and design.In 1995, as a result of the social movements and petitions from November to December in France, he founded a publishing company.His production is very extensive. So, in 1970 appears Fondements d’une théorie de la violence symbolique, Reproduction culturelle et reproduction sociale, written with Jean-Claude Passeron, and three years later, in 1976, Le système des grandes écoles et la reproduction de la classe dominant. Achieved his greatest success with The misère du monde (1993), where he denounces the social suffering, to drink in the sources of marxist and in the thought of Michel Foucault, and trace, in a combination of sociology and social anthropology, the lines of social exclusion, of the disinherited of the modernization, of technological progress and globalization.

The discourse of Bourdieu, which had already manifested itself with nuances critical before may ‘ 68, it is emphasized in the last years of his life with new arguments against the neo-liberalism and in favour of civil society and of the emerging world social forum, and involved some of the trade unions, non-governmental organizations, migrants and civic associations against the positions of neo-liberal that nurtured the discourse of the society called postmodern. Bourdieu was one of the founders of the publishing house, Liber-Raisons d agir, driving of the Attac movement.

Thought

It was one of the sociologists most relevant of the second half of the TWENTIETH century. Their ideas have major relevance both in social theory and in sociology, empirical, especially in the sociology of culture, of education and of life-styles. His theory stands out to be an attempt to overcome the duality in traditional sociology between social structures and objectivism (physicalism), on the one hand, versus the social action and subjectivism (hermeneutics), on the other hand. Adopts two new concepts, the habitus and the field, as well as reinvents an already established, the capital.In the field, is the social space that is created around the valuation of social facts such as art, science, religion, politics… These spaces are occupied by agents with different habitus, and capitals other, competing both for material resources as symbolic of the field. These capitals, aside from the economic capital, are formed by the cultural capital, social capital, and for any type of capital that is perceived as “natural”, way of the capital which he called symbolic capital.

In his empirical work is especially notable, all of your work from criticism of the culture, showing that the cultural distinction is nothing more than a disguised form of domination, which he called complicity ontólogica between the field and the habitus.

Its role as an intellectual took full effect from the second half of the 90’s in France, still his statements, the subject of lively controversy, by holding positions very critical both with respect to the media (see “On television”) as with respect to politics in general. Proposed and was the founder of the parliament of writers, an association designed to give academics greater autonomy over their work, and in this way to criticise and control the power to the margin of its means of dissemination of culture.

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Bibliography of Bourdieu

Books

2004 – Analysis of a sociologist – Esquisse pour une auto-analyse

2002 – the dance of The single – Le Bal des célibataires. Crise de la société paysanne in Béarn

2001 – The craft of scientific. Science of science and reflexivity – Science de la science et Réflexivité

2003 – the social structures of the economy

2002 – Interventions, 1961-2001. Social science and political action

2002 – the force of The law

2002 – Lesson about the lesson

2002 – Thought and action

2001 – cultural Capital, school, and social space

2001 – Firewall 2. For a european social movement

2000 – Issues of sociology

1998 – male domination – The Domination male

1999 – Firewall software. Reflections to serve the resistance against the invasion of neo-liberal

1999 – Belief in the artistic and symbolic goods

1997 – Rules of The Art. Genesis and structure of the literary field

1997 – Meditations pascalianas – Méditations pascaliennes

1996 – tv – Sur la télévision

1994 – The practical sense – Raisons pratiques. Sur la théorie de l’action

1993 – The misery of The world – Misère du monde

1992 – Les Règles de l’art|Les Règles de l’art. Genèse et structure du champ littéraire

1992 – the answers are there. Pour une anthropologie réflexive – with Loïc Wacquant

1989 – The Noblesse d’état. Grandes écoles et esprit de corps

1988 – The ontological politics of Martin Heidegger – L ontologie politique de Martin Heidegger.

1984 – Homo academicus

1987 – Choses dites

1982 – Ce parler veut dire: L’économie des’échanges linguistiques

1981 – Questions de sociologie

1980 – Le Sens pratique

1979 – The distinction – The Distinction ; Critique sociale du jugement

1975 – An art medium – A Art moyen. Essai sur les usages sociaux de la photographie with Luc Boltanski, Robert Castel and Jean-Claude Chamboredon

1972 – Esquisse d’une théorie de la pratique, preceded Trois études d ethnologie kabyle”

1970 – The reproduction – of The Reproduction. Éléments pour une théorie du système d’enseignement

1968 – the craft of The sociologist – Le Métier de sociologue with J. c. Passeron and J. c. Chamboredon

1966 – The love of the art. The european museums and their public – L’amour de l’art. Les musées et leur public, the Alain Darbel and Dominique Schnapper

1964 – The students and the culture – Les Héritiers. Les étudiants et la culture with Jean-Claude Passeron Extracts (in French)


Source:s Universia and Wikipedia

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