How are teratogens passed from mother to baby?
Once the fertilized egg is connected to the uterus, a common blood supply exists between the mother and the embryo. In other words, if something is in the mother’s blood, it can now cross over to the developing fetus.
When should a pregnant mother avoid teratogens?
Time of exposure: Teratogens are most harmful early in pregnancy, starting about 10 to 14 days after conception to about 8 weeks into pregnancy. Genetics: Sometimes, the pregnant person’s or the baby’s unique genetics protect them or make them more vulnerable to certain teratogens.
Why is it important to learn about teratogens?
Teratogens are drugs, chemicals, or even infections that can cause abnormal fetal development. There are billions of potential teratogens, but only a few agents are proven to have teratogenic effects. These effects can result in a baby being born with a birth defect.
How can you reduce the risk of birth defects?
Commit to Healthy Choices to Help Prevent Birth Defects
- Plan ahead. Get 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day.
- Avoid harmful substances. Avoid alcohol at any time during pregnancy.
- Choose a healthy lifestyle. Keep diabetes under control.
- Talk with your healthcare provider.
Can you tell if a baby has Down syndrome in an ultrasound?
An ultrasound can detect fluid at the back of a fetus’s neck, which sometimes indicates Down syndrome. The ultrasound test is called measurement of nuchal translucency.
Can Down syndrome be seen at 20 week ultrasound?
A Detailed Anomaly Scan done at 20 weeks can only detect 50% of Down Syndrome cases. First Trimester Screening, using bloods and Nuchal Translucency measurement, done between 10-14 weeks, can detect 94% of cases and Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) from 9 weeks can detect 99% of Down Syndrome cases.
What are they looking for at 20-week ultrasound?
The 20-week screening scan looks in detail at the baby’s bones, heart, brain, spinal cord, face, kidneys and abdomen. It allows the sonographer to look for 11 rare conditions. The scan only looks for these conditions, and cannot find everything that might be wrong.
Which trimester is most important for brain development?
Major, structural brain development lasts until about 16 fetal weeks (18 gestational weeks). However, the brain continues to develop for the rest of the pregnancy, after birth and through young adulthood.
Are there levels to Down syndrome?
There are three types of Down syndrome. People often can’t tell the difference between each type without looking at the chromosomes because the physical features and behaviors are similar. Trisomy 21: About 95% of people with Down syndrome have Trisomy 21.
What is considered a high risk of Down syndrome?
Patients are more likely to have a baby with Down syndrome or another chromosome abnormality when they are age 35 or older, or if they have already had a child with such an abnormality. These patients are considered “high-risk” and have additional testing options.
What is the average mental age of a person with Down syndrome?
7 individuals with Down syndrome (mean mental age = 8.18 +/- 2.73 years; mean chronological age = 29.8 +/- 5.4 years) and a group of 9 typically developing children, matched for mental age, (mean mental age = 8.40 +/- 1.73 years; mean chronological age = 7.2 +/- 1.2 years) were given a version of Cooper and Shepherd’s …