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How do RNA viruses infect cells?

How do RNA viruses infect cells?

During attachment and penetration, the virus attaches itself to a host cell and injects its genetic material into it. During uncoating, replication, and assembly, the viral DNA or RNA incorporates itself into the host cell’s genetic material and induces it to replicate the viral genome.

How do RNA viruses replicate?

RNA viruses replicate their genomes via one of two unique pathways—either by RNA-dependent RNA synthesis, or among the retroviruses, by RNA-dependent DNA synthesis (reverse transcription) followed by DNA replication and transcription.

What is RNA virus and how it survives?

Abstract RNA viruses exploit all known mechanisms of genetic variation to ensure their survival. Distinctive features of RNA virus replication include high mutation rates, high yields, and short replication times. As a consequence, RNA viruses replicate as complex and dynamic mutant swarms, called viral quasispecies.

Do RNA viruses evolve?

Viruses undergo evolution and natural selection, just like cell-based life, and most of them evolve rapidly. When two viruses infect a cell at the same time, they may swap genetic material to make new, “mixed” viruses with unique properties. RNA viruses have high mutation rates that allow especially fast evolution.

Why do RNA viruses mutate so quickly?

As a consequence of the lack of proofreading activity of RNA virus polymerases, new viral genetic variants are constantly created. Therefore, the high mutation rate of RNA viruses compared with DNA organisms is responsible for their enormous adaptive capacity.

Can viruses be made from scratch?

Scientists have built a virus from scratch in only two weeks. Their new technique paves the way for synthetic viruses and bacteria, but stirs concerns over biological weapons and the environment.

What virus has RNA?

1.1. RNA Viruses. Human diseases causing RNA viruses include Orthomyxoviruses, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Ebola disease, SARS, influenza, polio measles and retrovirus including adult Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

What happens during RNA processing?

RNA processing requires proper splicing of a primary transcript and modification of the 5′- and 3′-ends to generate a mature mRNA and the focus will be on the interdependence of these RNA-processing events with ongoing transcription.

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