How does age affect fluid electrolyte and acid base balance?
With aging, muscle mass is replaced by fat, total body water is decreased, and intracellular volume is changed; all of these factors play a role in the increased prevalence of hypernatremia and hyponatremia (22–24).
How does age affect fluid balance?
The most important principle in the elderly surgical patient is to maintain normal intravascular volume. Total body water decreases with age. In a younger man near his ideal body weight, total body water composes 60% to 65% of his body mass. By age 80 years, this contribution is reduced to 50%.
Why are older adults more at risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances?
Older adults are susceptible to dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities, with causes ranging from physical disability restricting access to fluid intake to iatrogenic causes including polypharmacy and unmonitored diuretic usage. Renal senescence, as well as physical and mental decline, increase this susceptibility.
Are most pediatric fluids hypertonic or hypotonic?
The AAP strongly recommends the use of isotonic maintenance intravenous fluids for most pediatric patients. Children requiring maintenance intravenous fluids (IVFs) have long been given hypotonic solutions such as quarter or half normal saline.
What are the clinical signs of moderate dehydration in a child?
Children with mild to moderate dehydration typically show the following symptoms:
- Nausea or headache.
- Dizziness or light-headedness.
- Dark yellow or brown urine color.
- Decreased physical activity.
- Dry lips, mouth, and throat.
- Urinates less frequently.
How do you maintain fluid in a child?
- For infants 3.5 to 10 kg the daily fluid requirement is 100 mL/kg.
- For children 11-20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1000 mL + 50 mL/kg for every kg over 10.
- For children >20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1500 mL + 20 mL/kg for every kg over 20, up to a maximum of 2400 mL daily.
How do you calculate maintenance fluid for a child?
For infants 3.5 to 10 kg the daily fluid requirement is 100 mL/kg. For children 11-20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1000 mL + 50 mL/kg for every kg over 10. For children >20 kg the daily fluid requirement is 1500 mL + 20 mL/kg for every kg over 20, up to a maximum of 2400 mL daily.
How is fluid maintenance calculated?
- For 0 – 10 kg = weight (kg) x 100 mL/kg/day.
- For 10-20 kg = 1000 mL + [weight (kg) x 50 ml/kg/day]
- For > 20 kg = 1500 mL + [weight (kg) x 20 ml/kg/day]
What is maintenance fluid for pediatrics?
Maintenance fluids are used when a patient is NPO. Maintenance fluids consist of water, glucose, sodium, and potassium. The glucose prevents starvation ketoacidosis and decreases the likelihood of hypoglycemia.
How is pediatric dehydration treated?
Severe dehydration should be treated with intravenous fluids until the patient is stabilized (i.e., circulating blood volume is restored). Treatment should include 20 mL per kg of isotonic crystalloid (normal saline or lactated Ringer solution) over 10 to 15 minutes.
Is normal saline a maintenance fluid?
However, maintenance fluid also has to be administered. The volume of maintenance fluid for 24 hours is 1000 ml (100 ml/kg X 10 kg). This needs to be given as D5 0.33% saline….Replacement Fluid Therapy.
|0-8 hours||9-24 hours|
|Maintenance||333 ml of D5 0.33% saline||666 ml of D5 0.18% saline|
What IV fluid is best for dehydration?
If you are correcting only dehydration (as when giving a bolus in the ER), use 0.9% saline. If you are correcting dehydration and providing maintenance fluids at the same time, add both volumes and use D5 0.45% saline. If you are providing fluid only, may use D5 0.18% saline or D5 0.33% saline.
Why do we give normal saline instead of dextrose to treat dehydration?
Normal saline contains sodium and chlorine, so it replaces lost fluid and prevents or corrects some types of electrolyte imbalances. We may also use a solution of dextrose and water to treat dehydration.
Where can I get IV fluids for dehydration?
Dehydration treatment is available at the hospital, urgent care centers, and drip bars. Receiving IV fluids at the hospital or urgent care comes with the guarantee of trained nurses and doctors overseeing your visit.
Can I request IV fluids?
In many places throughout the US, you can request IV fluids and you’ll get them. A nurse or physician’s assistant will place an IV catheter in your arm and you’ll receive IV fluids right at home, in your office, or at your hotel room.
Is IV hydration better than drinking water?
IV fluids work faster than drinking water. On the other hand, when you receive IV therapy, IV fluids enter your bloodstream directly. This means that the effects of hydration begin immediately, so you will feel better faster than when you simply drink a cup of water.
How long does it take to get IV fluids for dehydration?
This treatment typically takes between 30 – 60 minutes and is delivered directly to you wherever you are so you can optimize your hydration with maximum convenience.
How fast does it take to rehydrate?
According to a recent study from the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, your body can alleviate mild dehydration in 45 minutes with 20.3 oz (600ml) of water.
What is the healthiest drink you can drink?
Water is the best choice for quenching your thirst. Coffee and tea, without added sweeteners, are healthy choices, too. Some beverages should be limited or consumed in moderation, including fruit juice, milk, and those made with low-calorie sweeteners, like diet drinks.
What can I replace coke with?
Cut the Cola: 10 Healthy (and Delicious) Soda Substitutes
- Arnold Palmer Lite.
- Tea – iced or hot.
- Freshly-squeezed lemonade.
- Sparkling water.
- Sparkling water with a splash of juice.
- Maple water.
- Fruit and herb infusions.