How many watts does an electric arc furnace produce?
To produce a ton of steel in an electric arc furnace requires approximately 400 kilowatt-hours per short ton or about 440 kWh per metric tonne; the theoretical minimum amount of energy required to melt a tonne of scrap steel is 300 kWh (melting point 1520 °C/2768 °F).
What are electric arc furnaces used for?
An Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) is used in steelmaking to heat charged material (scrap metal) by means of an electric arc. Furnace temperatures can reach 3200°F (1760°C).
What is arc heating and its types?
Arc furnaces are of two types namely: (1) Direct arc furnaces. (2) Submerged arc furnaces and. (3) Indirect arc furnaces. In a direct arc furnace, shown in Fig. 5.4, the arc is formed between the electrodes and the charge, while in the indirect arc furnace the arc is formed between the electrodes, as shown in Fig.
What is the principle of arc furnace?
The main physical principle of an electric arc furnace is the transfer of energy from the electricity line to the furnace through heat radiation and conduction generated by an electric arc.
How do arc furnaces work?
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. Arc furnaces differ from induction furnaces, in that the charged material is directly exposed to an electric arc and the current in the furnace terminals pass through the charged material.
Which type of heating is used for sterilization?
Dielectric heating is used for sterilization.
What is the best method of sterilization?
Classical sterilization techniques using saturated steam under pressure or hot air are the most reliable and should be used whenever possible. Other sterilization methods include filtration, ionizing radiation (gamma and electron-beam radiation), and gas (ethylene oxide, formaldehyde).
What are the 4 sterilization methods?
Sterilization can be achieved through various means, including heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration. Sterilization is distinct from disinfection, sanitization, and pasteurization, in that those methods reduce rather than eliminate all forms of life and biological agents present.
Why autoclaving is the best method of sterilization?
Autoclaving is the most effective method of sterilizing the lab equipment specially for liquid handling products to kill harmful bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. The autoclaving process takes advantage of the phenomenon that the boiling point of water (or steam) increases when it is under high pressure.
What is the chemical method of sterilization?
Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid chemical sterilizing agent which is a strong oxidant and can destroy a wide range of microorganisms. It is useful in the sterilization of heat or temperature-sensitive equipment like endoscopes. In medical applications, a higher concentration (35-90%) is used.
What are the physical method of sterilization?
Physical methods of sterilization- Heat, Filtration, Radiation.