universality, a reference for the construction of social

The education has to investigate this concept, as the field of education and teaching exceptional

The universality is a challenge that transcends the education promoted by the education systems, and the emergence of a new mentality universal has to be considered the epicenter of formation of new concepts, to change the exterior and interior. Because education can not be sized or dyed of nothing, not be european, nor leftist, nor denominational, nor western, or capitalist, or anything that is not universal, or, in their default, non-partial, like I said Ferrer Guardia. In short, education should promote the universality, for its extraordinary wealth.


Source: Trends 21. By Agustín de la Herrán Gascón (17/04/2012)


La universalidad, un referente para la construcción social

In his essay on the disobedience, E. Fromm (1987) wrote: “it Can be said without exaggeration that it has never been so spread around the world as at present the knowledge of the big ideas produced by the human species, and never those ideas were less effective than today” (p. 45).

One of those great ideas is the universality. Today, when the normal is an imbalance planetarium increasing (as has been reiterated many times F. mayor Zaragoza caused by a recalcitrant myopia interior, still has not been repaired in the urgency of universality as a point of reference for the social construction, beyond the ego. In effect, education has not yet been investigated in the universality as an exceptional field of education and teaching, legitimized by the imperative to pursue the fuller development possible to the human being, beyond the short-sighted (1).

And that is that there is no claim to universality, nor to the non-partiality. In the “Universal Declaration of the Rights of the Child” proclaimed by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 20 November 1959 (resolution 1386), recognizes, among others, the “Right to a name and a nationality” (no. 3). Therefore, the child has the right to a limitation nationalist! For the purposes of educational approaches, political, etc based on such content, is is inviting, tacitly, to assume as normal and desirable in this condition, justified and endorsed internationally. What educational system would hesitate to promote it? Taking as a reference the perspective that we take, to the right of the child prior to sentence would have to follow him for another reason: it is an imperative of the right to be able to transcend that right limiting. It is the duty of every administration, of both adult and professional education grant that right.

But the university is not going to lag behind. Among the functions of the university, both the Organic Law of University Reform of 1983 as the Organic Law on Universities in 2002 to support social and economic development orienting them to the national level and the autonomous communities. And even the World Conference on Higher Education for the TWENTY-first Century refers to the diffusion of the cultures of national, regional, international and historical, in a context of plurality (V. Ortega, 2002, adapted)… without getting to the culture of universality, even though to underlie all of them as “longing” (J. A. Suárez, 2001) silent, perhaps as a paradigm complex and oriented.

Accordingly, it would be essential to direct the teaching beyond the nationalistic bias, and all other beliefs are partial. The limitations to the human being, and not the human being for the limitations! Above all, those that harm or do not benefit, as is the case questioned. How could the education settle for anything less?

Five perspectives of universality

The concept of universality has an extraordinary wealth, that I contemplate from various perspectives:a) Perspective of the original state: This definition refers to a state of universality a priori, if you will, rousseauniano, defined by the unique phenomenon of evolution, oblivious to the whole mental representation, egótica or not. To it is attached the most important learning for the human being, accessible for discovery, and very attached to the self-knowledge, and which may be called the discovery of the universality itself. I think that the primitive cultures or remote, and most oriental ones, have a lot of teaching in this sense the perception of this experience primal. This is referred to in this passage of the Zhuang zi (1996), canon taoist written during the time Zhang guo (centuries -IV and -III):The men of old, in the midst of a vague confusion, all lived in the most complete indifference. At that time, the Yin and the Yang were harmoniously balanced, and the spirits do not annoyed the men, and the four seasons followed one another with regularity, and the beings all not suffered any damage. It is not known premature death among the crowd of beings, and although the men were endowed with intelligence, they had no where or how to make use of it. State which is called perfect drive. At that time no one acted, and everything ran according to its natural course (p. 164).

b) Perspective of non-bias: The universality transcends the world of small ambitions: the desire of pre-eminence self-centered, the parcialismo, the duality, the identification is limited, the narcissism of the collective (Horkheimer, in Lasch), the difficulty for the convergence, the absence of doubt, etc, In short, do not stay in what you pay the sum of human misery, is not left with her. To access that sense of a higher order, it should not be identified only or mainly with identifications dependent systems unable to put their own interest on the basis of the human evolution, the big variable intentional truly global.

Universality is opposed to just-limitation, self-centeredness, shared, ismo cerril. Nothing stuck to the life that is your claim, nothing more legitimate prosecution. Here that J. L. García Garrido (1986) note, for example: “the need to overcome the current barriers that nationalism imposes on the educational systems” (p. 218).

The main reason behind penetrating in his knowledge, lies in the very nature of education, whose work is definitoriamente “universal” (T. Arnold, 1920, p. 72). We infer from this that an educational issue is fundamental to the human being lies in having understood the position and significance of thinking in the Nature, in regard to which the experiences of “ists” (nationalist, racist, sexist, partisan, etc), in addition to obeying to the same “syndrome selfish”, individual or shared, can be understood as mental representations desiccation of the universal experience. P. Teilhard de Chardin (1967b), in human energy, expressed that the fundamental problem of who has understood the position and significance of thought in the Nature:

has become ensure, rationally, the progress of the World of which we are part. Not only, as before, for our little guy, our little family, our little country -not only, nor, to the whole earth-, but how should we, men of today, for the salvation and success of the Universe itself, to organize as best as possible, around us, the maintenance, distribution and progress of Human Energy? The whole issue is there (p. 135).

c) Perspective of convergence: The universality could conceptuarse as a culmination to and the convergence of human. Beyond the “Everything that rises, converges” teilhardiano, we propose that, similarly, “Everything that deepens and converges, and that “Everything that does not converge is that it has not been elevated yet.” And is that human life and the mentalities of school, teachers, researchers,… to spare us fragmentalism and adolecemos of generous co-operation. Specific it of generous to differentiate them from the semiuniones that, as expressed by C. G. Jung (1983), “accumulate semihombres immature” (p. 190).

d) Perspective of motivation: The universality could be understood as the highest human motivation (Pascal, Rogers, Maslow, Dürckheim, Maharsi, García-Bermejo, etc). Any partiality can seek it. From this point of view, defining it is not the circumstances of departure (functional, social, cultural…), but the sense that has polarized the reasons systemic. The important thing is not to confuse “the moon and the finger pointing to the moon”. The human being tends to focus on the fingers and their diverse characteristics. For this reason it stumbles at times.

(e) Perspective of the drive: we Can understand by universality and unity of two facets of the same phenomenon: the universality, as a feeling, attitude, knowledge, state of consciousness, or interior world not fragmented subject. And the unit, as the culmination corresponding to the global perception. In effect: “The unit in human life, is not a means to the accomplishment of certain purposes. It is the means by which to reach the man to the fullest. The unit is a goal” (A. López Quintás, 1991, p. 65).

In addition, the awareness of unity brings impact organic positive, measurable, experimentally: “The mobile phone unit and other subtle psychological measures of motivation, such as confidence afiliativa, have been linked with favorable changes in the immune system, in other studies we did with dr. David Mc Clelland in Harvard University” (D. Goleman, 1997, p 156).

Universality and Uniqueness

Obviously, I am not referring to the unit that excludes diversity. When V. Camps (1998) writes that: “The mania of the unit has prevented us from accepting willingly what is different” (p. 92), is not referring to what we discuss here. The universality is not opposed to the uniqueness, idiosyncrasy, identity… on the contrary! The precise to be done and to realzarlas in key generous and deeply helpful. Because diversity is real, and the universality is utopia. Can it be, therefore, a complementarity more? As had been stated by E. Vera Manzo (1999): “Every person has at least one identity, the challenge is to have multiple identities simultaneously and protagónicamente at a particular time, assume that you want to represent”. In other words: “All the people we need to be singular and universal” (E. Vera Manzo, 1997).Because the universality is not “subsumed”, to the extent that it is a conquest positive. This can only make deposits. The true universality is a discovery and after it is a yearning or a utopia necessary, is also carried out in a concrete way and gradually. And that unity, or is made from the diversity to enhance it, or is not such, because, as I said Teilhard de Chardin, the unity, the true unity, not confused, difference.The synthesis multicultural will occur when all the people take the set of values of the humanity, its universality, and the only difference between people will be their singular values are configured on the place and time in which he lived (E. Vera Manzo, 1997, p. 37).

The strategies of the chameleon

In other words: a so-called universality that uniformizase and adocenase, would not be such. It would be a bias more formally comparable to any other, identically limited and useless for all the other ambition beyond the polarization of one’s own desires.The challenge of the new times -always are – is to adopt the strategy of the chameleon. What is it? To place an eye in singular territory (nation, education system, orientation, epistemological, professional qualification, teaching method, center of interest, etc) and the other eye on the map of the universal, and to integrate both in function of the career. It deducted three ways of walking dialectical:a) walking self-centered is the result of the use of the qualities, acceptances and advantages of universality in function of the own option, system, relation, or interest.

b) The walking concrete or machadiano, relatively blind, which creates routes for novel resulting from the integration between the singularity and the universality.

c) mindful walking, resulting from placing the singularity in the function of universality.

Creative processes and differential

Obviously, such motivations dialectics can be associated with two separate creative processes. Externally they can be identical. Even those who do not have all of the possibility that universal could be much brighter… but, oh, what a difference!Where lies the origin of your difference? From my point of view, in the consciousness, that J. L. Pinillos (1970) considered it as “most important achievement of the mind”. Consciousness, understood as the ability of vision and organ of the sense (electrical vehicle Frankl) of what is done and the life that is projected from what is done. Revindico from here the importance of the human consciousness (A. de la Herrán, 1998), the great misunderstood of the Teaching, of Psychology, of the sciences and the arts in general. Because without consciousness, everything loses its north, humans included, and the education and psychology is disoriented, almost without wanting to. Without consciousness, without knowledge of the knowledge, such as the called E. Morin, it is not possible to jump from one way of walking to another: the chameleon can not perceive wide keys of your circumstance, fall and kill yourself.

Beyond the educational systems

Said R. Eucken (1925), that:Our life and action must be linked somehow to the universal life, but, how will we get to it, and with what right can we elevate this short earthly existence to a universal essence and to believe a partaker of the kingdom of eternity, of infinity and perfection? (p. 379).This important question there is one primary answer: through education and from education systems redefined. The first questions that a teacher has to be well answered are: what are we doing, what we are building and for what to educate, even to do the training. To respond to this without list itself, it seems essential to transcend, even for a few moments, the limits of one’s own educational system and entering into harmony with all others and with the function and the main sense of the human being: to become more for better cooperation in the process of the universal evolution, seeing it expressly from each option in part. Who harms this ideal? Who do you favor? Why not cultivated in education systems? A reading interpretation can be the inertial-historical:

The school systems were born in large part as a consequence of nationalism and stood as one of its primary objectives that of serving nationalism, that is to say, to that which has sometimes been called the national spirit or the national identity of the country in question (J. L. García Garrido, 1997, p. 60).

An educational system which is transcended when you put the emphasis on the from itself, and not in the to itself neither in the for itself. Lack of socialization, drive, and work for the benefit of the human evolution, the only interest that anyone undermines -less systems egotizados-for deepwater development of the “global village” (of which I was speaking essayist and professor at the University of Toronto H. M. McLuhan in the 60’s), the “global city” (D. Soldevilla, 1958), or the concentration, complejificación and elevation of the “Noosphere” to the Omega referred to the huge amount of work teilhardiana. But it is perceived how, from the official questionnaires, and the requirements of ministerial and administrative-related education, on the one hand it fosters the pedagogic autonomy, whose origin is located in a strong identification of the educational center and their projects with their environment. And on the other it emphasises the importance localist, the result of which, in terms of pride, narcissism, separateness and distance can be much of the true education. Because education, as I said Ferrer Guardia, in the strict sense, can not be sized or dyed of nothing, not be european, nor leftist, nor denominational, nor western, or capitalist, or anything that is not universal, or, in their default, non-partial.

Areas of training for the universality

Equemáticamente would propose the following areas:a) teacher training:1) Technical-reflective-transformer (current formation).

2) self-Criticism and desempeoramiento (A. de la Herrán, and I. González, 2002).

3) Improvement of deep focused awareness (A. de la Herrán, 1998).

b) instructional objectives:

1. On the need to be understood and to understand others.

2. On the possibility of doubt and unlearning significantly around to a multitude of capacities with whose elimination wins.

3. On coherence as a source of ethics and a sign of good learning.

4. On the process itself desempeoramiento selfish applied to didactic communication and to the relationship with the colleagues, to promote the personal maturity beyond the professional development for self and for others.

5. On the teaching of the overcoming of the bias of the students due to the teacher and to the social media

6. On the neutrality, understood as non-partiality and universality in education and, more centered in the human condition that in any type of qualification circumstantial and fragmentary, looking for the universality, or in his absence, the non-partiality.

7. On the respect of teaching, understood as a way of developing the teaching of how unbiased or approaches or activities fair or processes dialectic, beyond the reasoning fragmented.

8. On the induction to the complexity, since the ability of rectification and overcoming of biases, fluctuations towards more full or partial no, and its ability of complexity of consciousness applied.

9. On the influences and prejudices of evaluation, from the avoidance of the influence of biases in the knowledge.

10. On what connects, unites and elevates socially, highlighting those contents of social and human convergent, the above fragmentadores and spacers.

11. On the evolution of group and individual through a didactic oriented to the personal development and group of teachers and students.

c) capabilities beyond the ego:

1) Related to the recognition of the attachments, identifications and biases in self and others.

2) Related to the development of a dialectical reasoning, integrative and creative and more able.

3) Related to the increase of complexity of consciousness (discrimination, thought, understanding, empathy, vision, internalization, convergence, openness, etc)

d) topics radical or spirals cross:

1) Education for self-knowledge, the control and reduction of the ego.

2) Education for the complexity of consciousness.

3) Education for self-doubt, self-criticism and rectification.

4) Education for the non-dependence.

5) Education for convergence and cooperation non-partial.

6) Education for a universal language.

7) Education for death.

Agustín de la Herrán Gascón is an associate professor at the Department of Didactics and Theory of Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education of the Autonomous University of Madrid. Article published in the journal Creativity and Society with the title “Education for the Universality: Beyond the Intercultural”.

Notes (1) In ancient China there was an expression that deserves an initial reflection: Bu chu hu siyu [literally, “do not get out of the four regions (border)”]. It was used to point out that the knowledge of someone were very limited (I. Preciado, 1996, p. 357, note; Zhuang zi, 1996, p. 74).Bibliography

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