What are ethical issues in research?

What are ethical issues in research?

Many or even most ethical codes cover the following areas:

  • Honesty and Integrity.
  • Objectivity.
  • Carefulness.
  • Openness.
  • Respect for Intellectual Property.
  • Confidentiality.
  • Responsible Publication.
  • Legality.

What are the six ethical issues?

There are six broad ethical areas that need to be considered in your research. In this chapter, we will discuss voluntary participation, informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, the potential for harm, communi- cating the results, and more specific ethical issues.

What are some major ethical issues?

If you are to run an ethical business, you first need to know what types of issues you can expect to face and may need to overcome.

  • Discrimination.
  • Harassment.
  • Unethical Accounting.
  • Health and Safety.
  • Abuse of Leadership Authority.
  • Nepotism and Favoritism.
  • Privacy.
  • Corporate Espionage.

How do you identify ethical issues?

When considering ethical issues, it is advised that you follow a stepwise approach in your decision-making process:

  1. Recognize there is an issue.
  2. Identify the problem and who is involved.
  3. Consider the relevant facts, laws and principles.
  4. Analyze and determine possible courses of action.
  5. Implement the solution.

What are the ethical issues in procurement?

Some ethical concepts and principles that relate to the procurement process are:

  • loyalty and respect for rules and regulations.
  • integrity.
  • impartiality and fairness.
  • transparency.
  • confidentiality.
  • avoidance of appearance of impropriety.
  • due diligence.

What are the five pillars of procurement?

The Five Pillars are:

  • Value for Money. In short this means that it is not necessarily the tender with the lowest price that is going to win the bid.
  • Open and Effective Competition.
  • Ethics and Fair Dealing.
  • Accountability and Reporting.
  • Equity.

What are the legal issues in procurement?

Legal Issues for Purchasing Management

  • Authority Limits.
  • Awareness of Contract Law.
  • Quality and Safety.
  • Monitoring Supply Contracts.
  • Letters of Intent/Memoranda of Understanding.
  • Tenders.

What are the legal aspects of purchasing?

6 Legal Status of Purchasing Manager • From a legal point of view, the following factors are associated with the appointment: 1. The purchasing manager must be granted the authority to make purchase contracts. 2. The purchasing manager accepts this contracting authority.

What does a procurement lawyer do?

Structuring tender processes and their implementation (including regulatory compliance). Developing bid strategies and commercial offerings. Advising on legal challenges (including urgent response during the standstill period). State Aid law and funding arrangements.

Why is it important for purchasing managers to understand legal issues?

They make various contracts for which they are required to possess some legal knowledge to successfully execute those contracts. So, the managers must possess knowledge about legal issues as they are a part in decision making for procurement and purchasing.

What is the relationship among contract law the UCC and commercial law?

Contract law is governed by the common law and the Uniform Commercial Code “UCC.” Common law governs contractual transactions with real estate, services, insurance, intangible assets and employment. UCC governs contractual transaction with goods and tangible objects (such as a purchase of a car).

What is legal procurement?

Legal procurement is a specific subset of procurement that is dedicated to the selection and purchase of legal services from outside vendors. It involves a strategic purchasing process, negotiations, and managing the business side of relationships with law firms and other legal service providers.

What are public procurement rules?

Public procurement law regulates the purchasing by public sector bodies and certain utility sector bodies of contracts for goods, works or services.

What procurement means?

Procurement is the act of obtaining goods or services, typically for business purposes. Procurement generally refers to the final act of purchasing but it can also include the procurement process overall which can be critically important for companies leading up to their final purchasing decision.

What are the 7 stages of procurement?

The 7 Key Steps of a Procurement Process

  • Step 1 – Identify Goods or Services Needed.
  • Step 2 – Consider a List of Suppliers.
  • Step 3 – Negotiate Contract Terms with Selected Supplier.
  • Step 4 – Finalise the Purchase Order.
  • Step 5 – Receive Invoice and Process Payment.
  • Step 6 – Delivery and Audit of the Order.
  • Step 7 – Maintain Accurate Record of Invoices.

What is an example of procurement?

Procurement may be a simple purchasing arrangement with a supplier. For example, direct procurement systems involve the integration of purchasing into a company’s supply-chain management system, delivering the right supplies at the right time.

What are the 6 R’s of purchasing?

Right Quantity 3. Right Time 4. Right Source 5. Right Price and 6.

What are the five major steps in the purchasing process?

Steps involved in a Procurement Process

  • Step 0: Needs Recognition.
  • Step 1: Purchase Requisition.
  • Step 2: Requisition review.
  • Step 3: Solicitation process.
  • Step 4: Evaluation and contract.
  • Step 5: Order management.
  • Step 6: Invoice approvals and disputes.
  • Step 7: Record Keeping.

What are the 4 goals of purchasing?

What are the 4 goals of purchasing?

  • Lower costs. This is by far the primary function of the purchasing department.
  • Reduce risk and ensure the security of supply.
  • Manage relationships.
  • Pursue innovation.
  • Leverage technology.

What are purchasing strategies?

Sourcing strategies can deliver different types and levels of value. The most common purchasing strategies are aggregation, standardisation, category management, outsourcing and relationship management (CIPS: Procurement’s role in the generation and capture of value in supply chains).

What are the six sourcing strategies?

Some sourcing strategies to consider:

  • Outsourcing. Having suppliers provide goods and services that were previously provided internally.
  • Insourcing. Delegating a job to someone within the company.
  • Nearsourcing.
  • Vertical integration.
  • Few or many suppliers.
  • Joint ventures.
  • Virtual enterprise.

What are strategic items?

Strategic Items. Definition: Strategic Items are products that are crucial for the process or product of the buyer. They are characterized by a high supply risk caused by scarcity or difficult delivery.

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