What are the three major families of geographic projections?

What are the three major families of geographic projections?

The three main types of projection families are:

  • Cylindrical. Cylindrical projections are used for areas near the equator and for the entire earth but with very large distortions.
  • Conic. Conical projections are good for areas near the mid-latitudes including the contiuous 48 states of the United States.
  • Planar or Azmithal.

What are the most common map projections?


Projection Type Key virtues
Lambert Conformal Conic conic conformal
Mercator cylindrical conformal and true direction
Robinson pseudo-cylindrical all attributes are distorted to create a ‘more pleasant’ appearance
Transverse Mercator cylindrical conformal

Why are there different types of map projections?

We have many different map projections because each has different patterns of distortion—there is more than one way to flatten an orange peel. Some projections can even preserve certain features of the Earth without distorting them, though they can’t preserve everything.

What are the 4 map projections?

Types of Map Projections

  • Gnomonic projection. The Gnomonic projection has its origin of light at the center of the globe. Less than half of the sphere can be projected onto a finite map.
  • Stereographic projection. The Stereographic projection has its origin of light on the globe surface opposite to the tangent point.
  • Orthographic projection.

What are the 4 general classes of map projections?

Map projections can be described in terms of their:

  • class (cylindrical, conical or azimuthal),
  • point of secancy (tangent or secant),
  • aspect (normal, transverse or oblique), and.
  • distortion property (equivalent, equidistant or conformal).

What are the 4 types of map distortion?

When the earth is projected onto a flat surface there are at least four different types of distortion: distance, direction, angle, and area. It is impossible to preserve all four means of distortion on one flat projection.

Do all maps have distortion?

The same applies to other reference surfaces used as models for the Earth, such as oblate spheroids, ellipsoids and geoids. Since any map projection is a representation of one of those surfaces on a plane, all map projections distort.

Where is the greatest distortion in a map projection?

Points close to center point show great distortion on the map. Stereographic projection is a conformal projection, that is over small areas angles and therefore shapes are preserved.

Why are all map projections inaccurate?

The Mercator distorts size to preserve shape. For a more accurate view of land area look at the Gall-Peters projection, which preserves area while distorting shape. The Gall-Peters projection. In the end, there’s not “right” map projection.

What is map projection?

A map projection is a method for taking the curved surface of the earth and displaying it on something flat, like a computer screen or a piece of paper. Equal area projections attempt to show regions that are the same size on the Earth the same size on the map but may distort the shape.

What is the most accurate flat map?

We found that the best previously known flat map projection for the globe is the Winkel tripel used by the National Geographic Society, with an error score of 4.563. One side of the map shows the Northern Hemisphere, the other side shows the Southern Hemisphere, with the equator running around the edge.

Are maps accurate?

The Accuracy of World Maps The short answer: absolutely not. Thanks to the varying distances between latitude lines away from the equator, the map pretty severely distorts surrounding landmasses.

What’s the difference between a map and a map projection?

Similarly, a map projection is a method by which cartographers translates a sphere or globe into a two-dimensional representation. In other words, a map projection systematically renders a 3D ellipsoid (or spheroid) of Earth to a 2D map surface. For example, map projections distort distance, direction, scale, and area.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of a Mercator projection?

Advantage: The Mercator map projection shows the correct shapes of the continents and directions accurately. Disadvantage: The Mercator map projection does not show true distances or sizes of continents, especially near the north and south poles.

What is the difference between a conformal map and an equal area map?

Equal area projections maintain a true ratio between the various areas represented on the map. Conformal projections preserve angles and locally, also preserve shapes.

What are the disadvantages of Mercator projection?

Disadvantages: Mercator projection distorts the size of objects as the latitude increases from the Equator to the poles, where the scale becomes infinite. So, for example, Greenland and Antarctica appear much larger relative to land masses near the equator than they actually are.

Which is the best map in the world?

View the world in correct proportions with this map. You may not know this, but the world map you’ve been using since, say, kindergarten, is pretty wonky. The Mercator projection map is the most popular, but it is also riddled with inaccuracies.

What is a disadvantage of the Robinson map?

Robinson projections are not equivalent; they do suffer from compression. However, the amount of area distortion is generally low within about 45° of the equator. Conformality: The Robinson projection is not conformal; shapes are distorted more than they would be in a truly conformal projection.

What are the 3 main types of map projections and how do they differ?

Certain map projections, or ways of displaying the Earth in the most accurate ways by scale, are more well-known and used than other kinds. Three of these common types of map projections are cylindrical, conic, and azimuthal.

How do you choose a map projection?

When you choose a projection, the first thing to consider is the purpose of your map. For general reference and atlas maps, you usually want to balance shape and area distortion. If your map has a specific purpose, you may need to preserve a certain spatial property—most commonly shape or area—to achieve that purpose.

What is an AuthaGraph map?

AuthaGraph is an approximately equal-area world map projection invented by Japanese architect Hajime Narukawa in 1999. The map is made by equally dividing a spherical surface into 96 triangles, transferring it to a tetrahedron while maintaining area proportions, and unfolding it onto a rectangle.

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