What causes the movement of the global ocean conveyor belt?

What causes the movement of the global ocean conveyor belt?

The global ocean conveyor belt is a constantly moving system of deep-ocean circulation driven by temperature and salinity. This motion is caused by a combination of thermohaline currents (thermo = temperature; haline = salinity) in the deep ocean and wind-driven currents on the surface.

What are 3 areas of upwelling in the world?

Worldwide, there are five major coastal currents associated with upwelling areas: the Canary Current (off Northwest Africa), the Benguela Current (off southern Africa), the California Current (off California and Oregon), the Humboldt Current (off Peru and Chile), and the Somali Current (off Somalia and Oman).

How does downwelling happen?

Downwelling occurs when surface waters converge (come together), pushing the surface water downwards. In these coastal upwelling regions, surface winds push water away from the shore and create a divergence at the coast, which is replaced by water from depth.

What is an upwell?

intransitive verb. : to well up specifically : to move or flow upward.

Why does upwelling attract huge numbers of fish?

Because the deep water brought to the surface is often rich in nutrients, coastal upwelling supports the growth of seaweed and plankton. These, in turn, provide food for fish, marine mammals, and birds.

What type of seawater has the greatest density?

In this manner, very dense seawater that is both cold and of elevated salinity is formed. Such areas as the Weddell Sea in Antarctica produce the densest water of the oceans. This water, known as Antarctic Bottom Water, sinks to the deepest depths of the oceans.

Are large streams of moving water that flow through the oceans?

A current is a large stream of moving water that flows through the oceans. Unlike waves, currents carry water from place to place. Surface currents move in circular patterns in the oceans. Most currents flow east or west, and then turn back to complete the circle.

What is driving force for a deep ocean current?

Winds drive ocean currents in the upper 100 meters of the ocean’s surface. However, ocean currents also flow thousands of meters below the surface. These deep-ocean currents are driven by differences in the water’s density, which is controlled by temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline).

What has the biggest effect on deep ocean currents?

These currents are on the ocean’s surface and in its depths, flowing both locally and globally. Winds, water density, and tides all drive ocean currents. Coastal and sea floor features influence their location, direction, and speed. Earth’s rotation results in the Coriolis effect which also influences ocean currents.

What would happen if thermohaline circulation stopped?

– If global warming shuts down the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean, the result could be catastrophic climate change. Between Greenland and Norway, the water cools, sinks into the deep ocean, and begins flowing back to the south.

What happens if AMOC slows?

As the current slows down, this effect weakens and more water can pile up at the US east coast, leading to an enhanced sea level rise.” In Europe, a further slowdown of the AMOC could imply more extreme weather events like a change of the winter storm track coming off the Atlantic, possibly intensifying them.

Can global warming lead to an ice age?

“It is safe to say that global warming will not lead to the onset of a new ice age,” two distinguished climate scientists wrote in the journal Science. Gulf Stream anxiety reached its apogee in 2005 when scientists at the University of Southampton, UK, discovered that the North Atlantic current had weakened by a third.

What would happen if AMOC stopped?

An AMOC shutdown may be able to trigger the type of abrupt massive temperature shifts which occurred during the last glacial period: a series of Dansgaard-Oeschger events – rapid climate fluctuations – may be attributed to freshwater forcing at high latitude interrupting the THC.

Why is the AMOC weakening?

Weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a consistent response seen in coupled climate models forced by transient warming, including phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5) experiments (Cheng et al. 2013; Reintges et al. 2017).

Has the ocean current stopped?

Recent research has shown that the circulation has slowed down by at least 15% since 1950. Scientists in the new study say the weakening of the current is “unprecedented in the past millennium.”

What the world will look like if all the ice melts?

If all the ice covering Antarctica , Greenland, and in mountain glaciers around the world were to melt, sea level would rise about 70 meters (230 feet). The ocean would cover all the coastal cities. And land area would shrink significantly.

What would happen if the ocean disappeared?

Without evaporation from lakes and oceans feeding the water cycle, it would stop raining. Without pools of water to drink from, people and most animals would dehydrate and die in a matter of days. Within a few weeks, plants would start withering in the ever-drier air.

What would happen if water stopped circulating around the world?

If it continues to slow, that could have profound consequences for Earth’s inhabitants. Studies suggest it would mean much colder winters and hotter summers in Europe, changing rainfall patterns in the tropics, and warmer water building up along the U.S. coast that can fuel sea level rise and destructive storms.

What would happen if the Gulf Stream stopped?

That could mean rising seas and a hotter Florida. A weaker Gulf Stream would mean higher sea levels for Florida’s east coast. It could lead to colder winters in northern Europe (one reason many scientists prefer the term climate change to global warming).

How does relief affect climate?

The shape of the land (‘relief’) Climate can be affected by mountains. Mountains receive more rainfall than low lying areas because as air is forced over the higher ground it cools, causing moist air to condense and fall out as rainfall. The higher the place is above sea level the colder it will be.

What causes Deepsets?

In contrast to wind-driven surface currents, deep-ocean currents are caused by differences in water density. The process that creates deep currents is called thermohaline circulation—“thermo” referring to temperature and “haline” to saltiness.

What are the 7 factors that affect climate?


  • Latitude. It depends on how close or how far it is to the equator.
  • Ocean currents. Certain ocean currents have different temperatures.
  • Wind and air masses. Heated ground causes air to rise which results in lower air pressure.
  • Elevation. The higher up you are, the colder and drier it will be.
  • Relief.

What are 3 effects of climate change?

Increased heat, drought and insect outbreaks, all linked to climate change, have increased wildfires. Declining water supplies, reduced agricultural yields, health impacts in cities due to heat, and flooding and erosion in coastal areas are additional concerns.

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