What do proximate explanations of behavior focus on?

What do proximate explanations of behavior focus on?

Ultimate explanations are concerned with the fitness consequences of a trait or behavior and whether it is (or is not) selected. In contrast, proximate explanations are concerned with the mechanisms that underpin the trait or behavior—that is, how it works.

What is proximate cause?

A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result. This exists in contrast to a higher-level ultimate cause (or distal cause) which is usually thought of as the “real” reason something occurred.

Which of the following is an ultimate cause for a bird’s behavior?

The ultimate cause for a behavior is affected by natural selection. In the bird example, the ultimate cause for why the birds with longer beaks were favored was because……. With regard to animal behavior, explain the expression “nature versus nurture.” How do genes and the environment contribute to behavior?

Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats response to the female’s urinating behavior?

Male cats congregate near the urine deposits and fight with each other. Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats’ response to the female’s urinating behavior? A) The males have learned to recognize the specific odor of the urine of a female in heat.

How are behavior affected by natural selection?

In many cases, behaviors have both an innate component and a learned component. Behavior is shaped by natural selection. Many behaviors directly increase an organism’s fitness, that is, they help it survive and reproduce.

What happens during disruptive selection?

Disruptive selection, also called diversifying selection, describes changes in population genetics in which extreme values for a trait are favored over intermediate values. In this case, the variance of the trait increases and the population is divided into two distinct groups.

How does disruptive selection happen?

Diversifying (or disruptive) selection: Diversifying selection occurs when extreme values for a trait are favored over the intermediate values. This type of selection often drives speciation. Diversifying selection can also occur when environmental changes favor individuals on either end of the phenotypic spectrum.

Can trade offs result in disruptive selection?

Trade-offs can result in disruptive selection. E. Trade-offs occur when good performance on one task results in a cost to performance of another task. Trade-offs are the same as constraints.

What is an example of balancing selection?

A well-studied case is that of sickle cell anemia in humans, a hereditary disease that damages red blood cells. This is an example of balancing selection between the fierce selection against homozygous sickle-cell sufferers, and the selection against the standard HgbA homozygotes by malaria.

Is heterozygote advantage and example of stabilizing selection?

Both heterozygote advantage and frequency dependent selection are examples of balancing selection, they both lead to a stable polymorphic equilibrium state.

What is an example of heterozygote advantage?

When a single copy of a disease allele doesn’t result in a disease but instead is good for the person or organism that carries it, we say that allele has a heterozygote advantage. One example is sickle cell trait, which protects against malaria in heterozygotes, but causes a deadly disease in homozygotes.

What is the heterozygote disadvantage?

A mutant with a heterozygote disadvantage can be maintained in a population if it occurs frequently enough for sufficient homozygote offspring to be produced. Above this value, it can suppress the non-mutated gene variant completely and the mutated form becomes extinct.

How do you test for heterozygote advantage?

The only way to test the hypothesis of heterozygote advantage explicitly is to measure fitness of the homozygotes and heterozygotes for the putatively balanced alleles directly.

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