# What is propagation delay in ripple counter?

## What is propagation delay in ripple counter?

The effective propagation delay in a ripple counter is equal to the sum of propagation delays due to different flip-flops. An increased propagation delay puts a limit on the maximum frequency used as clock input to the counter.

## What is a ripple counter?

Ripple counter is a special type of Asynchronous counter in which the clock pulse ripples through the circuit. The n-MOD ripple counter can count 2n states, and then the counter resets to its initial value. Features of the Ripple Counter: Different types of flip flops with different clock pulse are used.

## How many states a 6 bit ripple counter can have?

010, 001, 000, 111, 110, … etc. The 3-bit ripple counter used in the circuit above has eight different states, each one of which represents a count value. Similarly, a counter having n flip-flops can have a maximum of 2 to the power n states. The number of states that a counter owns is known as its mod (modulo) number.

## What is difference between synchronous and asynchronous counter?

In synchronous counter, all flip flops are triggered with same clock simultaneously. In asynchronous counter, different flip flops are triggered with different clock, not simultaneously. Synchronous Counter is also called Parallel Counter. Asynchronous Counter is also called Serial Counter.

## What does the term asynchronous mean in relation to counters?

Asynchronous counters are those whose output is free from the clock signal. Because the flip flops in asynchronous counters are supplied with different clock signals, there may be delay in producing output. The required number of logic gates to design asynchronous counters is very less. So they are simple in design.

## Why are asynchronous called ripple counters?

Asynchronous counters are slower than synchronous counters because of the delay in the transmission of the pulses from flip-flop to flip-flop. Asynchronous counters are also called ripple-counters because of the way the clock pulse ripples it way through the flip-flops.

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## Which of the following is a major advantage of synchronous counter over asynchronous counters?

The one advantage of synchronous counter over asynchronous counter is, it can operate on higher frequency than asynchronous counter as it does not have cumulative delay because of same clock is given to each flip flop.

## What are the advantages of asynchronous counters?

Advantages Of Asynchronous Counter They are simple and easy to design by Toggle flip flop or D flip flop. They can be used in low speed circuits. They are most reliable because they use the same clock signal for all flip flops. They can be used as Truncated counters.

## What are the applications of counters?

Applications of counters

• Frequency counters.
• Digital clocks.
• Analog to digital convertors.
• With some changes in their design, counters can be used as frequency divider circuits.
• In time measurement.
• We can design digital triangular wave generator by using counters.

## What is the use of Johnson counter?

Johnson counter is used as a synchronous decade counter or divider circuit. It is used in hardware logic design to create complicated Finite states machine. ex: ASIC and FPGA design. The 3 stage Johnson counter is used as a 3 phase square wave generator which produces 1200 phase shift.

## What are applications of flip-flops?

Applications of Flip-Flops

• Counters.
• Frequency Dividers.
• Shift Registers.
• Storage Registers.
• Bounce elimination switch.
• Data storage.
• Data transfer.
• Latch.

## What are different types of flip flop?

There are basically four different types of flip flops and these are:

• Set-Reset (SR) flip-flop or Latch.
• JK flip-flop.
• D (Data or Delay) flip-flop.
• T (Toggle) flip-flop.

## What are the two stable states of flip flop?

The 4 basic flip flops are SR, D, Toggle and JK. A latch is an example of a bistable multivibrator, that is, a device with exactly two stable states. These states are high-output and low-output. A latch has a feedback path, so information can be retained by the device.

## Why we use SR flip flop?

The SR flip-flop, also known as a SR Latch, can be considered as one of the most basic sequential logic circuit possible. A basic NAND gate SR flip-flop circuit provides feedback from both of its outputs back to its opposing inputs and is commonly used in memory circuits to store a single data bit.

## What is the full form of SR flip flop?

S-R Flip-flop/Basic Flip-Flop S-R flip-flop stands for SET-RESET flip-flops. The SET-RESET flip-flop consists of two NOR gates and also two NAND gates. These flip-flops are also called S-R Latch.

## What is the problem of SR flip flop?

It is also called a Gated S-R flip flop. The problems with S-R flip flops using NOR and NAND gate is the invalid state. This problem can be overcome by using a bistable SR flip-flop that can change outputs when certain invalid states are met, regardless of the condition of either the Set or the Reset inputs.

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## How do I calculate how many flip flops I need?

Example 1: How many flip flops are needed to implement a state machine with 12 states? Answer: 3 flip flops can implement 23=8 states and 4 can implement 24=16. Since 8 states are too few, 4 flip flops would be needed to cover 12 states.

## What is maximum count of mod n counter?

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