What is the arousal continuum?

What is the arousal continuum?

The traditional physiologically defined activation or arousal continuum, which ranges from intense emotion and vigorous activity on one extreme to calmness and sleep on the other, is rejected in favor of a psychological model with two activation dimensions and a single continuum of energy expenditure.

What is the inverted U hypothesis?

The inverted-U hypothesis suggests that there is an optimal level of. stimulus at which performance peaks. At other levels of stimulus, both higher and lower. than the optimum, performance deteriorates.

What is use dependent development?

Because the developing brain organizes and internalizes new information in a use‐dependent fashion, the more a child is in a state of hyperarousal or dissociation, the more likely they are to have neuropsychiatric symptoms following trauma. The acute adaptive states, when they persist, can become maladaptive traits.

How childhood trauma affects the brain?

Childhood trauma physically damages the brain by triggering toxic stress. Strong, frequent, and prolonged, toxic stress rewires several parts of the brain, altering their activity and influence over emotions and the body.

What is the valence of emotion?

Emotional valence describes the extent to which an emotion is positive or negative, whereas arousal refers to its intensity, i.e., the strength of the associated emotional state (Feldman Barrett & Russell, 1999; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1997; Russell, 2003).

What is low valence?

Valence, or hedonic tone, is the affective quality referring to the intrinsic attractiveness/”good”-ness (positive valence) or averseness/”bad”-ness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation. For example, emotions popularly referred to as “negative”, such as anger and fear, have negative valence.

What does Valence mean in politics?

Valence politics, also known as competence voting, is a model of voting behaviour that emphasises that individuals vote based upon “people’s judgements of the overall competence of the rival political parties”.

What does Valency mean?

Valency is the combining power of an element. Elements in the same group of the periodic table have the same valency. The valency of an element is related to how many electrons are in the outer shell.

What is a valence system?

Description. Positive Valence Systems primarily responsible for responses to positive motivational situations or contexts, such as reward seeking, consummatory behavior, and reward/habit learning.

Are valence electrons?

In chemistry and physics, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

What does Valence mean in marketing?

Marketing dictionary A salesperson’s desire to receive additional amounts of a given reward (e.g., a pay increase). Valences can influence salespeople’s level of motivation.

How many valence electrons does sodium have?

one valence electron

What does Valence mean in chemistry?

valency

What is valence in management?

Valence. Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards]. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, time-off, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards). Management must discover what employees value.

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