What is the difference between ethical relativism and utilitarianism?
Normative Ethical Relativism claims that each culture’s values, however different, are right for THAT culture Utilitarians are interested in consequences, and look at consequences to judge whether an act was good or bad, right or wrong
Why does mill distinguish between so called higher and lower pleasures examples?
Mill does privilege pleasure: he writes that happiness consists of pleasure and freedom from pain Thus, making a distinction between higher and lower pleasures allows Mill to separate himself from of earlier accounts of utilitarianism as well as replying to the criticisms leveled at utilitarianism in general
How many types of pleasures are there?
Bentham listed 14 kinds of pleasure; sense, wealth, skill, amity, a good name, power, piety, benevolence, malevolence, memory, imagination, expectation, pleasures dependent on association, and the pleasures of relief
Are bodily pleasures inferior to intellectual pleasures?
To summarize, these are the main points of Mill’s utilitarianism: General happiness is the sole criterion of morality, and “happiness” is defined as pleasure Higher intellectual pleasures are more valuable than lower bodily pleasures
How does Mill think we can determine which kinds of pleasure are most valuable?
In contrast to a form of hedonism that conceives pleasure as a homogeneous matter, Mill was convinced that some types of pleasure are more valuable than others in virtue of their inherent qualities For this reason, his position is often called “qualitative hedonism”
What does the greatest happiness principle mean?
Definition The greatest happiness principle is a moral tenet, which holds that the best thing to do is what contributes to the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people
What is base pleasure?
Of particular interest are base pleasures (those, say, of gluttony, sex, and so on), malicious pleasures (ie, those taken in the pain or misfortune of others), and repeated pleasures (ie, ones that are qualitatively identical to past ones)
What are ethical rights?
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory
What is the rights theory of ethics?
In ethical theories based on rights, the rights established by a society are protected and given the highest priority Rights are considered to be ethically correct and valid since a large population endorses them Individuals may also bestow rights upon others if they have the ability and resources to do so
What are positive ethical rights?
Positive rights, therefore, are rights that provide something that people need to secure their well being, such as a right to an education, the right to food, the right to medical care, the right to housing, or the right to a job
What is ethical duty?
The word ‘deontological’ comes from the Greek word deon, which means ‘duty’ Duty-based ethics teaches that some acts are right or wrong because of the sorts of things they are, and people have a duty to act accordingly, regardless of the good or bad consequences that may be produced