# What is the principle of turbine?

## What is the principle of turbine?

Wind turbines operate on a simple principle. The energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity.

## What are four types of turbines?

While turbines can be classed as either impulse or reaction according to the way they function, there are four broad types of turbines categorized according to the fluid that supplies the driving force: steam, gas, water, or wind.

Francis turbine

## What are 3 types of turbines?

• Pelton turbine, a type of impulse water turbine.
• Francis turbine, a type of widely used water turbine.
• Kaplan turbine, a variation of the Francis Turbine.
• Turgo turbine, a modified form of the Pelton wheel.
• Cross-flow turbine, also known as Banki-Michell turbine, or Ossberger turbine.

## What are the two types of turbines?

There are two main types of hydro turbines: impulse and reaction. The type of hydropower turbine selected for a project is based on the height of standing water—referred to as “head”—and the flow, or volume of water, at the site. Other deciding factors include how deep the turbine must be set, efficiency, and cost.

## How many types of reaction turbines are there?

Reaction based turbines include three subtypes: Francis turbine, propeller turbine (bulb turbine, Straflo turbine, Kaplan turbine types), and kinetic turbine.

## How many type of reaction turbines are there?

Mainly two types of reaction turbine: ( i ) Outward radial flow reaction turbine (ii) Inward flow reaction turbine.

## What is specific speed of turbine?

The specific speed value for a turbine is the speed of a geometrically similar turbine which would produce unit power (one kilowatt) under unit head (one meter). The specific speed of a turbine is given by the manufacturer (along with other ratings) and will always refer to the point of maximum efficiency.

## What is the formula to calculate specific speed of turbine?

The Specific speed of a turbine formula is defined as the ratio of product of speed and square root of power to the head raised to the power of 5/4 is calculated using specific_speed_turbine = (Speed*sqrt(Power))/(Head^(5/4)). To calculate Specific speed of a turbine, you need Speed (N), Power (P) and Head (H).

## How do you calculate turbine speed?

By definition, TSR is the speed of the blade at its tip divided by the speed of the wind. For example, if the tip of a blade is traveling at 100 mph (161 kph) and the wind speed is 20 mph (32 kph or 9 m/s), then the TSR is 5 (100 mph/20 mph).

## How do I calculate specific speed?

Example – Specific Speed for a Pump with different units

1. US gpm, ft. Ns(US gpm, ft) = (1760 rev/min) (1500 gal/min)1/2 / (100 ft)3/4
2. British gpm, ft. Ns(British gpm, ft) = (1760 rev/min) (1249 gal/min)1/2 / (100 ft)3/4
3. m3/h, m. Ns(m3/h, m) = (1760 rev/min) (340 m3/h)1/2 / (30.5 m)3/4
4. liter/min, m.

RPM

## What is suction specific speed?

Suction specific speed is an index number for a centrifugal pump similar to discharge specific speed and is used to define its suction characteristic. It is constant for a given pump, regardless of pump speed. For pumps of normal design, values of “S” vary from 6,000 to 12,000.

## What is the formula for specific speed of a centrifugal pump?

We must divide N by 9.55 to convert to radians/second. Q must be divided by 449 to convert to ft3/second and H must be multiplied by 32.2. The result tells us that to convert from U.S. units to dimensionless values requires that the U.S. values for NS be divided by 2,735.

## Is specific speed dimensionless?

Specific Speed is a dimensionless rating of pump discharge performance derived from an equation involving shaft speed, flow rate and differential head at a pump’s Best Efficiency Point. It is an important factor used in the design and selection of pumps and impellers.

## What is specific speed of Pelton turbine?

The optimum value of the overall efficiency of a Pelton turbine depends both on the values of the specific speed and the speed ratio. The Pelton wheels with a single jet operate in the specific speed range of 4-16, and therefore the ratio D/d lies between 6 to 26 as given by the Eq. (15.25b).

## How do you calculate suction speed?

Suction specific speed (NSS) can be thought of as one index or tool in a mix of several tools regarding impeller design. NSS is a dimensionless parameter that describes the relationship between the speed, the flow rate and the net positive suction head required (NPSHr) of the rotating impeller.

## Which turbine has lowest speed?

Most sub 10kW wind turbines are rated for speeds from 8 to 12m/s. The coefficient of performance of commercial small turbines generally falls in the range of 0.25 to 0.45 based on manufacturers rated powers, speeds and diameters.

## What is the significance of specific speed of turbine?

Specific speed is an index used to predict desired pump or turbine performance. i.e. it predicts the general shape of a pumps impeller. It is this impeller’s “shape” that predicts its flow and head characteristics so that the designer can then select a pump or turbine most appropriate for a particular application.

## Why Pelton turbine is used for high head?

These turbines are generally used for sites with heads greater than 300 meters. The water in a Pelton turbine is moving quickly (high velocity head, figure 2) and the turbine extracts energy from the water by slowing the water down, which makes this an impulse turbine.

## Which turbine is used for high head?

Hydropower Turbines

Hydropower Turbine Type Typical Site Characteristics
Kaplan turbine Low to medium heads (1.5 – 20 metres) Medium to high flows (3 m3/s – 30 m3/s) For higher flows multiple turbines can be used.
Pelton/Turgo turbine High heads (greater than 25 metres) Lower flows (0.01 m3/s – 0.5 m3/s)

## Why Pelton wheel is not suitable for low head?

Pelton turbines are not used at lower heads because their rotational speeds becomes very slow and the runner required is very large and unwieldy. If runner size and low speed do not pose a problem for a particular installation, then a Pelton turbine can be used efficiently with fairly low heads.

## What is the degree of reaction of Pelton turbine?

In case of turbines, both impulse and reaction machines, Degree of reaction (R) is defined as the ratio of energy transfer by the change in static head to the total energy transfer in the rotor i.e.

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