What is the relationship between mass and density?
An object’s density is the ratio of mass to volume of an object. The mass is how much it resists acceleration when a force is applied to it and generally means how much of an object or substance there is. Volume describes how much space an object takes up.
Why is specific gravity called dimensionless constant?
Because it is the ratio of two quantities that have the same dimensions (mass per unit volume), specific gravity has no dimension.
What is specific gravity used for?
The term “Specific Gravity” (SG) is used to define the weight or density of a liquid as compared to the density of an equal volume of water at a specified temperature. The temperature used for measurement is usually 39.2oF (4oC), because this temperature allows water to assume its maximum density.
Why it is called specific gravity?
So “specific gravity” refers to the relative weight of a unit volume of a substance (relative to water) which is proportional to its density.
Is specific gravity temperature dependent?
Specific gravity is dependent on the temperature, and most of the values found in the literature refer to STP conditions. Although the two terms often are used interchangeably, there is a technical difference between specific gravity and density. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume of a substance.
What affects specific gravity?
The concentration of the excreted molecules determines the urine’s specific gravity. In adult humans, normal specific gravity values range from 1.010 to 1.030.
How do air bubbles affect specific gravity?
Density or specific gravity (SG) is affected by entrapped air bubbles in the liquid under test. Under pressure the air will dissolve better into the liquid and any bubbles that are left undissolved will be compressed to a fraction of their original size.
What are the factors affecting specific gravity test?
Specific gravity varies with temperature and pressure; reference and sample must be compared at the same temperature and pressure or be corrected to a standard reference temperature and pressure. Substances with a specific gravity of 1 are neutrally buoyant in water.
Why is specific gravity test done for cement?
The cement particles have pores or particles that can contain water within it. A nominal mix is prepared with a cement of specific gravity 3.15. Any change in this value of specific gravity will affect the mix design. Hence, it is necessary to test the specific gravity of the cement procured before mixing process.
Why do we perform specific gravity test?
A urine specific gravity test compares the density of urine to the density of water. This quick test can help determine how well your kidneys are diluting your urine. Urine that’s too concentrated could mean that your kidneys aren’t functioning properly or that you aren’t drinking enough water.
Why is specific gravity test done for soil?
The Pycnometer is used for determination of specific gravity of soil particles of both fine grained and coarse grained soils. The determinination of specific gravity of soil will help in the calculation of void ratio, degree of saturation and other different soil properties.
Which soil has higher specific gravity?
Tropical iron-rich laterite, as well as some lateritic soils, usually have a specific gravity of between 2.75 and 3.0 but could be higher. Sand particles composed of quartz have a specific gravity ranging from 2.65 to 2.67. Inorganic clays generally range from 2.70 to 2.80.
What is G in soil mechanics?
1.7.3 Particle specific gravity (Gs) The specific gravity of a material is the ratio of the weight or mass of a volume of the material to the weight or mass of an equal volume of water. In soil mechanics the most important specific gravity is that of the actual soil grains and is given the symbol Gs.
What unit is specific gravity?
It has the SI unit kg m-3 or kg/m3 and is an absolute quantity. Specific gravity is the ratio of a material’s density with that of water at 4 °C (where it is most dense and is taken to have the value 999.974 kg m-3). It is therefore a relative quantity with no units.
What is porosity of soil?
“Soil porosity” refers to the amount of pores, or open space, between soil particles. Pore spaces may be formed due to the movement of roots, worms, and insects; expanding gases trapped within these spaces by groundwater; and/or the dissolution of the soil parent material. Soil texture can also affect soil porosity.
What is bulk unit weight of soil?
Bulk unit weight is a measure of the amount of solid particles plus water per unit volume. Saturated unit weight is equal to the bulk density when the total voids is filled up with water.
What is specific weight of soil?
Specific weight is often used as a property of soil to solve earthwork problems. In soil mechanics, specific weight may refer to: Moist unit weight, which is the unit weight of a soil when void spaces of the soil contain both water and air.
What is submerged density of soil?
Submerged density or bouyant density is the density of a mass of soil as observed under water in a saturated condition of course. It is calculated as the difference of the soil density in air and the density of water, divided by the density of water.